Alkaline degreasing powder formulation guidelines

Alkaline Degreasing Powder (ADP) provides degreasing and cleaning of mild steel sheet metal components from 40 deg. C to 70 deg. C for powerful cleaning and at room temperature for normal cleaning. It can be diluted to 3% to 6% by weight by volume concentration in industrial water based on the condition of the components.  Painting or powder coating can be done on the cleaned components after thorough drying followed by proper metal pre-treatments like conventional zinc phosphating or iron phosphating.

Formulation of Alkaline Degreasing Powder

# Materials Weight, kg
1 Sodium hydroxide flakes 35.0
2 Sodium meta silicate 25.0
3 Sodium gluconate 3.0
4 Sodium hexametaphosphate 4.0
5 Lissapol D Powder (disodium lauryl sulphate) 6.0
6 Sodium carbonate 27.0
  Yield 100.0

Raw materials:

  1. Sodium hydroxide or caustic soda is available as flakes or pellets. Flake form is recommended in this formulation.
  • Sodium meta silicate breaks down fatty acids in oil and greases. I it is also available in powder form.
  • Sodium gluconate helps to protect metals like steel when strong caustic based cleaners are used. It helps to break down scale on metal components. Sodium gluconate has the advantage of being non-toxic and biodegradable. It is available in crystalline powder and liquid form. Powder form is recommended in this formulation.
  • Sodium hexa meta phosphate is a surface acting agent and dispersant.
  • Lissapol D is a surfactant and wetting agent, available in powder, liquid and paste form. Powder form is better for this formulation.
  • Sodium carbonate breaks down grease and oil, and removes lubricants and grease applied on sheet metal components.

Manufacturing Process

  1. Pony mixer is ideal for mixing degreasing powder.
  • Mix items one to three thoroughly in the mixer and add the wetting agents to get uniform mixture and finally add item 6.
  • After obtaining uniform mixing the degreasing powder should be packed in dry plastic containers.

Features of Pony mixer

  • Agitator consists of vertical blades held on rotating head positioned near the wall of the can.
  • Blades are slightly twisted. That makes the product efficient mixing.
  • Agitator is mounted eccentrically.
  • Blades can be cleaned and replaced.

Degreasing tank make up

  • Recommended 5% concentration by weight by volume.
  • Longer duration may be required to clean at room temperature for more oily and degreased components.
  • Less than five minutes may be required at 50 deg C to 70 deg C for cleaning oily and greasy layer of any mild steel sheet metal components.
  • Oil contents of the bath should be constantly monitored.
  • If the components are not properly cleaned with industrial water after degreasing, the alkaline carry over may disturb further process. Ensure thorough cleaning after degreasing.
  • If the components are rusty, derusting should be done before application of any paint.

Acrylic emulsion paints formulation guidelines

Acrylic Emulsion Guidelines – List of Raw Materials

S.No. Raw Materials Popular Brand Names
  Vinyl acetate co-polymer inter platicised emulsion-55% solids Usage: Acrylic distemper, interior primer and acrylic wall putty Visicryl 6155 Min. pack: 220 kg
  Vam Veova co-polymer, 55% solids Usage: Interior, exterior emulsion and exterior primer Visicryl 4056 Min. pack. 220 kg
  Styrene copolymer, 50% solids – excellent water resistant Usage: all purpose Visicryl 7650 Min pack. 50 kg
  Dispersing agent – 30% solids Visicryl 830 Min. pack. 20 kg
  Thickener – 28% solids Visicryl 828 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Hydroxy ethyl cellulose Usage: for exterior purpose Any brand Min. 25 kg
  Wetting agent Alphox 200 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Defoamer Any brand Min. pack. 30 kg
  Liquor ammonia – pH neutraliser Any brand Min. pack. 35 L
  Incan preservative Preventol D7 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Dry film preservative Preventol A14D Min. pack. 60 kg
  Sodium hexametaphosphate – water softener Any brand Min. pack. 50 kg
  Diethylene glycol- moisture retention and film forming agent Any brand Min. pack 230 kg
  Pine oil – flow additive Any brand Min. pack. 30 L
  Titanium dioxide Any brand Min. pack25 kg
  Colour paste for interior and exterior Specific brand Min. 1 kg

Acidic Liquid Degreasing Chemical Formulations

Acidic liquid degreasing solution provides mild degreasing, cleaning and very mild formation of phosphate on metal components. It can be diluted with 5 times of volume of industrial water. For a better performance on more rusted components, the dilution ratio may be accordingly reduced. Painting should be done on the treated components immediately after wiping of with dry cloth. White patches should be wiped off. It the white patches are aggressive the solution may further be diluted.

Acidic liquid degreasing solution provides mild degreasing, cleaning and very mild formation of phosphate on metal components. It can be diluted with 5 times of volume of industrial water. For a better performance on more rusted components, the dilution ratio may be accordingly reduced. Painting should be done on the treated components immediately after wiping of with dry cloth. White patches should be wiped off. It the white patches are aggressive the solution may further be diluted.

# Materials Quantity, kg
  Phosphoric acid 80% solution 26
  Butyl cellosolve 5.5
  Ethyl cellosolve 18
  Water 50
  Sodium hexametaphosphate 0.5
  Yield 100

Raw materials:

  1. Phosphoric acid solution concentration may be of 80 to 85% of industrial grade.
  2. Butyl cellosolve and ethyl cellosolve are industrial grade organic solvents. If ethyl cellosolve is not available, it can be replaced by butyl cellosolve. However, it may slightly affect the performance of the cleaning action.
  3. Industrial water is ideal for the making up the solution. Hard water may disturb the performance of the solution.
  4. Sodium hexametaphosphate is a mixture of polymeric metaphosphate surfactant. It also acts a sequestering agent.  It is available in the powder form.

Procedure

  1. Dissolve item 5 in 4 in a stainless steel or plastic container using a mixer.
  2. Add item 1 followed by items 2 and 3
  3. Ensure thorough mixing

Features of liquid acidic degreaser

  • Mild steel and aluminium components can be cleaned with this solution
  • Dilution ratio for applying on the metal: 1:5 in industrial water.
  • Application: By brushing or swabbing using proper gloves. Should be wiped off immediately with dry cloth after the formation of thin and mild phosphate layer.
  • Should be painted within an hour.
  • Caution: Leaving the substrate with this solution without wiping may lead to formation of mild rust.

Other Recommendations

In case of aggressive condition of the surface of the metal components, the following sequence of operations may be adopted.

  1. Sanding with emery sheets of various grades
  2. Solvent degreasing with cleaning thinner (Formula guidelines included)
  3. Air drying
  4. Application of acidic liquid degreasing solution
  5. Dry wipe off

Formulation of cleaning thinner

S No. Raw materials Quantity (kg)
1 Mixed Xylene 50
2 Acetone 30
3 n-Butanol 6
4 Methyl isobutyl ketone 4
5 n-Butyl acetate 7
6 Ethyl cellosolve 3
  Total 100

*Can be mixed using a mechanical stirrer.

Toluene Specification

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

1. PRODUCT

Product Name: TOLUENE

Product Description: Toluene

2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Synonyms: Methyl benzene

CAS NO.: 108-88-3                                                                                 

Composition: Toluene

3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

S.NO. PARAMETERS SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD
  Physical state Liquid Visual
  Colour Water white Visual
  Clarity Clear Visual
  Specific gravity at 30o C 0.870 – 0.874 ASTM D 4052
  Water solubility Insoluble Visual
  Distillation range 110˚C to 111˚C ASTM D 86
  Flash point, Closed cup 4.4o C ASTM D 93
  Non-aromatic 2000 ppm by wt. max. ASTM D 2360
  Sulphur content Nil ASTM D 3120
  Copper corrosion Passes ASTM 849

Solvent CIX Specification

1. PRODUCT

Product Name: SOLVENT C-9

Product Description: Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon solvents

2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Synonyms: Solvent naphtha

CAS NO.: 64742-94-5                                                                              

Composition: Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon solvents

3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

S.NO. PARAMETERS SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD
  Physical state Liquid Visual
  Colour Water white Visual
  Clarity Clear Visual
  Specific gravity at 30o C 0.875 ASTM D 4052
  Water solubility Insoluble Visual
  Distillation range 170˚C to 205˚C ASTM D 86
  Flash point, Abel apparatus 42o C ASTM D 93
  Mixed Aniline point 14 o C ASTM D 611
  Aromatic contents, max 99% by wt  
  Doctor Test Passes ASTM D 4952
  Sulphur content <1mg /kg ASTM D 3120

Petroleum Fluids

Chemical classification of petroleum fluids

  • Petroleum fluids are complex multi-component mixtures.
  • The chemical constituents of petroleum may be classified broadly as belonging either to the C6- or the C6+ fraction.
  • The light end, or C6- fraction, of petroleum fluids is composed of well-defined pure hydrocarbon components with carbon numbers up to 5 and the light gases nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S).
  • The hydrocarbons in the light end primarily are straight-chain normal alkanes (n-alkanes) and their branched isomers (i-alkanes).
  • The heavy end, or C6+ fraction, consists of all the components with carbon numbers of 6 or greater.

Classification of petroleum constituents

A classification system and nomenclature commonly used in the petroleum industry describes components as belonging to the paraffinic (P), naphthenic (N), or aromatic (A) fractions. These are often referred to jointly as PNA.

Paraffins

This class includes n-alkanes and i-alkanes that consist of chains of hydrocarbon segments (-CH2-, -CH3) connected by single bonds. Methane (CH4) is the simplest paraffin and the most common compound in petroleum reservoir fluids. The majority of components present in solid wax deposits are high-molecular-weight paraffins.

Naphthenes

This class includes the cycloalkanes, which are hydrocarbons similar to paraffins but contain one or more cyclic structures. The elements of the cyclic structures are joined by single bonds. Naphthenes make up a large part of microcrystalline waxes.

Aromatics

This class includes all compounds that contain one or more ring structures similar to benzene (C6H6). The carbon atoms in the ring structure are connected by six identical bonds that are intermediate between single and double bonds, which are referred to as:

  • Hybrid bonds
  • Aromatic double bonds
  • Benzene bonds

Resins and asphaltenes

Resins and asphaltenes primarily are a subclass of the aromatics, although some resins may contain only naphthenic rings. They are large molecules consisting primarily of hydrogen and carbon, with one to three sulfur, oxygen, or nitrogen atoms per molecule. The basic structure is composed of rings, mainly aromatics, with three to ten or more rings per molecule.

SARA classification of petroleum constituents

The components of the heavy fraction of a petroleum fluid can be separated into four groups: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA).

  • Saturates include all hydrocarbon components with saturated (single-bonded) carbon atoms. These are the n-alkanes, i-alkanes, and cycloalkanes (naphthenes).
  • Aromatics include benzene and all the derivatives composed of one or more benzene rings.
  • Resins are components with a highly polar end group and long alkane tails. The polar end group is composed of aromatic and naphthenic rings and often contains heteroatoms such as oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Pure resins are heavy liquids or sticky solids.
  • Asphaltenes are large highly polar components made up of condensed aromatic and naphthenic rings, which also contain heteroatoms. Pure asphaltenes are black, nonvolatile powders.

The experimental method used to determine the weight fractions of these groups is called SARA analysis.

Asphaltene characteristics

Nature of asphaltenes

  • Asphaltenes are a solubility class that is soluble in light aromatics such as benzene and toluene but is insoluble in lighter paraffins. 
  • They normally are classified by the particular paraffin used to precipitate them from crude (e.g., n-pentane or n-heptane). 
  • Mitchell and Speight showed that different alkane solvents yield different amounts of precipitates. 
  • Speight showed dependence of the aromaticity and molecular weight of asphaltene on the precipitating solvent.
  • They also indicated that the amounts and natures of asphaltenes precipitated with n-heptane or heavier alkanes are very similar.
  • Speight, Long and Trowbridge provides a summary of standard analytical methods for asphaltene separation with either n-pentane or n-heptane.

Asphaltenes and waxes

  • Deposition of the high-molecular-weight components of petroleum fluids as solid precipitates in surface facilities, pipelines, downhole tubulars, and within the reservoir are well-recognized production problems.
  • Depending on the reservoir fluid and the type of recovery process, the deposited solid may consist of:
    • Asphaltenes
    • Waxes
    • A mixture of these materials
  • The deposits also can contain resins, crude oil, fines, scales, and water.
  • Asphaltenes and waxes are a general category of solids and, thus, cover a wide range of materials.
  • Understanding the fundamental characteristics that define the nature of asphaltenes and waxes is valuable in reducing or avoiding the production impacts of their deposition.

Mineral Turpentine Oil Specification

1. PRODUCT

Product Name: MTO (Mineral Turpentine Oil)

Product Description: Mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents

2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Synonyms: White spirit

CAS NO.: 8006-64-2                                                                               

Composition: Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon solvents

3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

S.NO. PARAMETERS SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD
  Physical state Liquid Visual
  Colour Water white Visual
  Clarity Clear Visual
  Specific gravity at 30o C 0.785 ASTM D 4052
  Water solubility Insoluble Visual
  Distillation range 125˚C to 240˚C ASTM D 86
  Flash point, Abel apparatus 30o C ASTM D 93
  Aromatic contents, max 40% by V  
  Copper strip corrosion at 50oC for corrosion Nil IS:1745-1978

Mixed Xylene Specification

1. PRODUCT

Product Name: Mixed Xylene

Product Description: Aromatic Mixture of ortho xylene, meta xylene and para xylene

2. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS

Synonyms: Xylene

CAS NO.: 1330-20-7                                                                               

Composition: Mixture of aromatic hydrocarbon solvents

3. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

S.NO. PARAMETERS SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD
  Physical state Liquid Visual
  Colour Water white Visual
  Clarity Clear Visual
  Specific gravity at 30o C 0.865 – 0.875 ASTM D 4052
  Water solubility Insoluble Visual
  Distillation range 136˚C to 143˚C ASTM D 86
  Flash point, Abel apparatus 29o C ASTM D 93
  Doctor Test Passes ASTM D 4952
  Sulphur content <1mg /kg ASTM D 3120