Activity list of a Manager

  1. Visiting customers
  2. Visiting suppliers
  3. Queries from staff over technical matters
  4. Customer complaints
  5. Planning and control work
  6. Training
  7. Supervision
  8. Reading mails
  9. Chasing overdue accounts
  10. Checking stocks and reordering
  11. Attending Management meetings
  12. Recruiting
  13. Handling staff problems
  14. Interpersonal skill

Checklist for a purchase manager to select a good supplier

2After-sales service or availability of spare parts
3Previous good experience of the product
4Proximity of supplier
5Security of supply
6General reputation of supplier
7The volume of other goods purchased from the same supplier
8Good personal relationship with salesman and technical staff of the supplier

Lab testing methods for evaluation of a coating

  • Pigment testing as per IS 33
  • Solvent testing as per IS 82
  • Evaluation of paints and pigments
  • Testing plastic and rubber components
  • Salt spray resistance
  • Humidity resistance
  • Accelerated QUV weatherometer test
  • Bend test
  • Impact resistance test
  • Water analysis
  • Acid / alkali / fertilizer / water resistance tests
  • Cross hatch test
  • Glossmeter reading in 20 deg, 45 deg and 80 deg
  • Colour matching computer
  • Pencil hardness test
  • Metal pretreatment bath parameter maintenance
  • Sieve residue analyzer

Powder coating standards

For finishes made with Polyester epoxy powder coat on nano-treated mild steel components. All tests are conducted on panels as recommended in ASTM standards.

# Tests Parameters Test Methods
  Colour L*a*b readings of less than 0.3 under cool white light to RAL Shades Ref. RAL Shade cards
Gloss 60 +/- 10 at 60o at 1.5 mil ASTM D523
Hardness No film cut while gouging with a mechanical pencil using a 2H lead ASTM D3363
Adhesion or cross hatch test No loss of adhesion Class 5B ASTM D3359
Flexibility No cracking or peeling at 1/8” Conical Mandrel ASTM D522
Chemical and Stain Resistance Five drops of each reagent under a watch glass for 4 hours. There shall be no more than a trace of stain. Change in gloss shall not exceed standard. Reagents used: IPA, Nail polish remover, fizzy drinks like coke, Mustard, Tea, Coffee, 5% acetone ASTM D1308
Impact Resistance No peeling or loss of adhesion using adhesion tape. ASTM D2794
Salt Spray Resistance Min. 400 hours, no creeping corrosion ASTM B117
Humidity Resistance No blistering after 200 hours ASTM D2247
  Abrasion Resistance 0.3 g – 0.4 g material loss after 100 cycles of Tabor Abrader ASTM D4060
  Oven Bake Resistance Within the specification of colour, gloss, hardness and adhesion after double bake of one panel ASTM D2454
  UV Resistance Minimal change in colour or gloss after 60 hours using QUV-A bulbs Ref. QUV Weatherometer manual

Emulsion paint formulation guidelines

S. No.Raw materialsQty (kg)
1Soft water21.00
2Sodium hexa meta phosphate0.20
4Anionic dispersing agent0.70
5Nonionic dispersing agent0.40
7Hydroxy ethyl cellulose0.50
8In-can preservative0.20
9Dry film preservative0.70
11Diethylene glycol2.20
12Titanium dioxide – anatase18.00
13Calcined china clay5.00
16Pure acrylic emulsion35.00
19Pine oil1.00
Approximate rate per kg
Pigment paste for tinting
Disper mix
100 G tank
10 kg, 4 kg, 1 kg

Degreasing bath control parameters

Degreasing bath control parameters

S. No. Details Parameters
  Bath concentration for immersion 5%
  Bath temperature 30 deg. C min. 60 deg. C max.
  Immersion time 5 minutes to 10 minutes
  Free alkali, points 20 to 35
  Total alkali / Free alkali ratio < 3.0

Testing and Control:

Warning: Do not pippette by mouth, use a pro-pipette.

Free Alkali:

Pipet a 10 ml degreasing bath sample solution into a 150-ml beaker. Add 5 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. Titrate with Standard Acid Titrating Solution (0.1 N H2SO4) to the end point. Disappearance of pink colour is the end point. The volume of the titrating solution is the free alkali value in points.

Disappearance of pink colour – End point

Total Alkali:

Pipet a 10 ml of degreasing bath solution sample into a 150-ml beaker. Add 5 drops of bromocresol indicator solution. Titrate against with the Standard Acid Titrating Solution (0.1 N H2SO4) to the end point. Appearance of pale green from blue colour is the end point. The volume of Titrating Solution is the total alkali value in the alkali bath.

End point: Blue to green

Total Alkali/Free Alkali Ratio:

As the degreasing bath is used regularly and frequently, it becomes contaminated, and the total alkali value will rise. Thus, the ratio of the total alkali value to the free alkali value will also rise and this becomes a useful measure of the degree of contamination of the cleaner solution. The solution is periodically dumped or continuously overflowed to keep the total alkali to free alkali ratio from exceeding the maximum value determined for the system. Total Alkali/Free Alkali Ratio should be regularly monitored. The value under typical cleaning conditions should not be allowed to exceed 3.0.

Alkaline degreasing powder formulation guidelines

Alkaline Degreasing Powder (ADP) provides degreasing and cleaning of mild steel sheet metal components from 40 deg. C to 70 deg. C for powerful cleaning and at room temperature for normal cleaning. It can be diluted to 3% to 6% by weight by volume concentration in industrial water based on the condition of the components.  Painting or powder coating can be done on the cleaned components after thorough drying followed by proper metal pre-treatments like conventional zinc phosphating or iron phosphating.

Formulation of Alkaline Degreasing Powder

# Materials Weight, kg
1 Sodium hydroxide flakes 35.0
2 Sodium meta silicate 25.0
3 Sodium gluconate 3.0
4 Sodium hexametaphosphate 4.0
5 Lissapol D Powder (disodium lauryl sulphate) 6.0
6 Sodium carbonate 27.0
  Yield 100.0

Raw materials:

  1. Sodium hydroxide or caustic soda is available as flakes or pellets. Flake form is recommended in this formulation.
  • Sodium meta silicate breaks down fatty acids in oil and greases. I it is also available in powder form.
  • Sodium gluconate helps to protect metals like steel when strong caustic based cleaners are used. It helps to break down scale on metal components. Sodium gluconate has the advantage of being non-toxic and biodegradable. It is available in crystalline powder and liquid form. Powder form is recommended in this formulation.
  • Sodium hexa meta phosphate is a surface acting agent and dispersant.
  • Lissapol D is a surfactant and wetting agent, available in powder, liquid and paste form. Powder form is better for this formulation.
  • Sodium carbonate breaks down grease and oil, and removes lubricants and grease applied on sheet metal components.

Manufacturing Process

  1. Pony mixer is ideal for mixing degreasing powder.
  • Mix items one to three thoroughly in the mixer and add the wetting agents to get uniform mixture and finally add item 6.
  • After obtaining uniform mixing the degreasing powder should be packed in dry plastic containers.

Features of Pony mixer

  • Agitator consists of vertical blades held on rotating head positioned near the wall of the can.
  • Blades are slightly twisted. That makes the product efficient mixing.
  • Agitator is mounted eccentrically.
  • Blades can be cleaned and replaced.

Degreasing tank make up

  • Recommended 5% concentration by weight by volume.
  • Longer duration may be required to clean at room temperature for more oily and degreased components.
  • Less than five minutes may be required at 50 deg C to 70 deg C for cleaning oily and greasy layer of any mild steel sheet metal components.
  • Oil contents of the bath should be constantly monitored.
  • If the components are not properly cleaned with industrial water after degreasing, the alkaline carry over may disturb further process. Ensure thorough cleaning after degreasing.
  • If the components are rusty, derusting should be done before application of any paint.

Acrylic emulsion paints formulation guidelines

Acrylic Emulsion Guidelines – List of Raw Materials

S.No. Raw Materials Popular Brand Names
  Vinyl acetate co-polymer inter platicised emulsion-55% solids Usage: Acrylic distemper, interior primer and acrylic wall putty Visicryl 6155 Min. pack: 220 kg
  Vam Veova co-polymer, 55% solids Usage: Interior, exterior emulsion and exterior primer Visicryl 4056 Min. pack. 220 kg
  Styrene copolymer, 50% solids – excellent water resistant Usage: all purpose Visicryl 7650 Min pack. 50 kg
  Dispersing agent – 30% solids Visicryl 830 Min. pack. 20 kg
  Thickener – 28% solids Visicryl 828 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Hydroxy ethyl cellulose Usage: for exterior purpose Any brand Min. 25 kg
  Wetting agent Alphox 200 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Defoamer Any brand Min. pack. 30 kg
  Liquor ammonia – pH neutraliser Any brand Min. pack. 35 L
  Incan preservative Preventol D7 Min. pack. 50 kg
  Dry film preservative Preventol A14D Min. pack. 60 kg
  Sodium hexametaphosphate – water softener Any brand Min. pack. 50 kg
  Diethylene glycol- moisture retention and film forming agent Any brand Min. pack 230 kg
  Pine oil – flow additive Any brand Min. pack. 30 L
  Titanium dioxide Any brand Min. pack25 kg
  Colour paste for interior and exterior Specific brand Min. 1 kg